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Algoritma nedir?

algoritma (telaffuz AL-go-rith-um), belirtilen eylemlerin bir dizisini yürütmeye dayanarak bir problemi çözmek için bir prosedür veya formüldür.

algoritma (telaffuz AL-go-rith-um), belirtilen eylemlerin bir dizisini yürütmeye dayanarak bir problemi çözmek için bir prosedür veya formüldür. Bir bilgisayar programı ayrıntılı bir algoritma olarak görülebilir. Matematik ve bilgisayar bilimlerinde, bir algoritma genellikle tekrarlayan bir problemi çözen küçük bir prosedür anlamına gelir.

Algoritmalar, bilişim teknolojilerinin tüm alanlarında yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır (bilgi teknolojisi). Örneğin, bir arama motoru algoritması, anahtar sözcükleri girdi olarak alır, ilişkili veritabanını ilgili web sayfaları için arar ve döndürür.

Bir şifreleme algoritması, verileri korumak için belirtilen işlemlere göre dönüştürür. Örneğin ABD Savunma Bakanlığı Veri Şifreleme Standardı ( DES ) gibi gizli bir anahtar algoritması , verileri şifrelemek ve şifresini çözmek için aynı anahtarı kullanır. Algoritma yeterince karmaşık olduğu sürece, anahtarın bulunmadığı hiç kimse verilerin şifresini çözemez.

Algoritma kelimesi Bağdat’taki kraliyet mahkemesinin bir parçası olan ve yaklaşık 780’den 850’ye kadar yaşayan matematikçi Muhammed ibn-Musa el-Hwarizmi’den geliyor.

Algoritma

Bir sorunu çözmek veya belirlenmiş bir amaca ulaşmak için tasarlanan yola, takip edilen işlem basamaklarına algoritma denir. Algoritmalar açıkça belirtilmiş bir başlangıcı ve  sonu olan işlemler kümesidir. Amaca ulaşmak için işlenecek çözüm yolları ve sıralamaları belirlenir ve algoritma bu sırayı takip ederek en mantıklı çözüme ulaşır. İlk algoritma, El-Harezmi’nin ‘Hisab-el Cebir ve El Mukabala’ kitabında sunulmuştur ve algoritma kelimesi de El-Harezmi’nin isminden gelmiştir. Algoritma terimi genellikle matematikte ve bilgisayar bilimlerinde karşımıza çıkmaktadır.

Algoritma Niçin Kullanılır? Ne İşe yarar?

Algoritma matematikte bir sonuca ulaşmak için takip edilmesi gereken işlem basamaklarını belirlemede kullanılır. Örneğin, 3 ve 5 sayılarının ortalamasını bulmak istediğinizde önce (3+5) işlemini yaptıktan sonra sırada “çıkan sonuç/2” işlemini yapmanız gerekmektedir.

Bilgisayar biliminde algoritmalar yazılımdaki her yerdeler. Örneklendirecek olursak, bilgisayarda offline olarak yapılan tüm işlemler, oynanan oyunlar, çalıştırılan programlar, web siteleri, mobil uygulamalar, robotlar… Kısacası sanal ortamdaki her işlem algoritmalar ile gerçekleşiyor.

Tüm programlama dillerinin temelinde algoritma vardır. Algoritmalar, programlama dillerinin vasıtasıyla uygulanabilirler. Programda kullanılan dil ve kullanım alanı ne olursa olsun algoritması olmayan bir program yoktur. Programda bir algoritmanın işlemesi için dışarıdan gelen tüm girdiler “değişken” olarak tanımlanır. Algoritmadaki döngüler ve işlemler, bu değişkenler üzerinden gerçekleşir.

Algoritmadaki tüm ihtimaller belirtilmiş ve net olmalıdır. Hiçbir ihtimal şansa bırakılmamalıdır.

Her algoritma kağıt halinde yazılabilecek şekilde basit olmalıdır. Algoritmalar metin olarak düz yazı ile veya akış diyagramları ile gösterilebilirler. Akış diyagramları, algoritmanın işleyişini neden-sonuç ilişkisini göstererek sırayla aktarılmasını sağlar.

Bir problemin çözümünde izlenecek yol anlamına gelir ve problemin çözümünün adımlar halinde yazılmasıyla oluşturulur. Algoritma basamaklarının bir başlangıcı ve sonu bulunur. Her adımda yapılacak işlem açıkça belirtilir.

Bilgisayarlar problemleri tıpkı insanlar gibi çözmeye çalışır. Kullanıcı tarafından kendisine verilen komutları adım adım uygulayarak problemin çözümüne ulaşır. Kullandığımız yazılımların tamamı «kod» adı verilen bilgisayarın anlayacağı dilde yazılmış özel komutlardan oluşur. Bu kodlar bilgisayar yazılımcıları tarafından yazılır.

Algoritmalar gerçek hayat problemlerinde çözüm üretmek için kullanılabilir, aynı zamanda bilgisayar yazılımları hazırlamadan önce yazılımın genel hatlarını, nasıl çalışacağını belirlemek içinde kullanabiliriz.

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